Herskind Putnam posted an update 4 months, 3 weeks ago
According to El-Farabie, the Oud dates again to the times of Lamech a sixthgeneration
descendant of Adam. Lamech was identified as the “Father of the Oud
players”. The initial physical appearance of the Oud was 3000 BC. The desecrated
skeleton proposed the kind of the Oud. Oud is known as the first stringed
instrument in heritage.
The oldest pictorial record of the Oud dates back again to the Uruk interval in Southern
Mesopotamia (Iraq), more than 5000 a long time in the past on a cylinder seal obtained by Dr.
Dominique Collon and the seal is at present housed at the British Museum..
As the Oud gets to be the quintessence of earlier chordophones, it also
constitutes their purposeful synthesis. In the ninth century, Miwardi, the jurist of
Baghdad, extolled its use in treating disease, this kind of as King David did by way of his
life with his Oud. The Oud was in the arms of Egyptians and Iraqis when the
Israelites came out of Egypt. They took the Oud with them to the Holy Land. The
Oud even now maintains its Egyptian and Iraqi attributes and musical stylings. The Oud
was played in sacred places this sort of as the temples of Egypt.
In the 1st hundreds of years of Arabian civilization, the oud had 4 courses (one particular
string for every system – double-strings arrived afterwards) only, tuned in successive
fourths. These ended up referred to as (for the cheapest in pitch) the Bamm, then came
(greater to greatest in pitch) the Mathnā, the Mathlath and the Zīr. A fifth
string (optimum in pitch, most affordable in its positioning in relation to other strings),
named ḥād ("sharp"), was sometimes included for theoretical needs,
generally to complement the double octave.
The neck, joined to the body, is described as ‘unq (‘neck’) in classical writings
and the raqba (‘neck’) or zand (‘wrist’) today. It extends the upper component of the
instrument by some twenty cm and is inserted into the soundbox up to the
soundhole. This length, which has been considerably mentioned, is critical in the
instrument’s construction, identifying the quantity and area of the intervals
and as a result affecting the modes. In early 19th-century Egypt, Villoteau gave the
measurement as 22.4 cm a century afterwards, also in Egypt, Kamil al-Khula’i gave it
as 19.five cm. In up to date Egypt, the duration of the neck could differ in between eighteen
and twenty.five can. It is standardized as twenty cm in Syria, but a duration of 24.5 cm may
be found on Moroccan types, he ‘ud ‘arbi (Arab ‘ud). If the ‘ud ‘arbi is the
descendant of an archaic design of Andalusian provenance, the upper part of the
instrument may possibly have become shorter. The neck seldom has
4. Versions of the ‘ud
(i) Two-string ‘ud:The thesis of its existence has been upheld by musicologists
from Europe and Iran it envisages the archaic ‘ud as a counterpart of the tanbur,
having two strings like that instrument. The argument rests on the names of the
strings, two of which are Iranian conditions (bamm and zir) and two other folks of Arab
origin (mathna and mathlath). There is no circumstantial documentary evidence
to support this hypothesis.
(ii) 4-course ‘ud: The Arabian ‘ud qadim (historic lute), in certain, invited
cosmological speculation, linking the strings with the humours, the temperature,
the aspects, the seasons, the cardinal factors, the zodiac and the stars. The
strings might be tuned bass to treble or treble to bass. Bass to treble tuning is
represented by al-Kindi (ninth century), who advocated tuning the cheapest course
(bamm or very first string) to the cheapest singable pitch. Putting the ring finger on a
mathematically determined duration of this string, a single moves on to deduce the
pitch of the third open up course (mathna), then that of the next (mathlath) and
lastly the fourth (zir). (This method is also utilized to the five-training course ‘ud and is
even now utilised as a tuning method, following the sequence 1-4-2-three-five or one-4-two-5-three.)
Adherents of the reverse university (Ikhwan al- Safa’) tune from treble to bass. The
intention, inherited in part by the Turkish ‘ud, involves pulling challenging on the zir (substantial)
string, so that as it techniques breaking-stage it gives a distinct sound. A single then
moves on to determine the pitch of the next training course (mathna), the 3rd
(mathlath) and ultimately the fourth (bamm). These two schools did not stay
entirely independent. But whichever procedure is used, each finish up with tuning by
successive 4ths, every single program getting tuned a 4th earlier mentioned the lower system
preceding it. Musicologists, Eastern as effectively as Western, who consider to interpret the
pitch of these notes in European conditions conclude up with diverse outcomes.
Though the four-course ‘ud survives in Morocco, as the ‘ud ‘arbi, the tuning
does not conform to the pitches inferred from classical treatises: a conflict
among oral and prepared traditions. The Moroccan technique appears to be the
item of a preceding method, the ‘ud
ramal, which also comprised a sequence of 4ths: ramal (?e), hsin, (?a), maya (?
d’), raghul (?g’). This ‘ud, like its Tunisian counterpart, may be variously tuned: a
feature of these tunings is that they juxtapose the conventional 4ths with the octave
and at times the fifth and 6th (D-d- G-c). The strings of the ‘ud ‘arbi are named
dhil, ramal, maya, hsin this terminology by no means refers to a mounted pitch
common this sort of as academic and standardized tuition methods would wish for.
At the time of al-Kindi, two of the classes had been made of intestine and two of silk. In the
10th century silk became predominant and some texts give the composition of
the twisted threads: bamm = 64 threads, mathlath = forty eight, mathna = 36, zir = 27.
The figures for the reduced courses of the ‘ud correspond with those of two upper
strings of the Chinese qin, a reality that has led to speculation about the
partnership between Arab and Chinese civilizations by way of the Silk Route.
An additional characteristic of the four-program ‘ud is that it is bichordal, obtaining double
programs. thirteenth-century iconography demonstrates that it was presently common to pair the
strings at that time, almost certainly to improve sonority but also to enable the
growth of a far more virtuoso variety of efficiency.
(iii) 5-system ‘ud: The addition in Andalusia of a fifth system has been
attributed to Ziryab (eighth-9th century), even though in theoretical writings it appeared
in Iraq with al-Kindi. (The addition of this further training course has a parallel in China.)
With Ziryab the fifth training course, acknowledged as awsat (‘intermediary’), a term perpetuated
in the ‘ud of San’a’ named qanbus, is positioned between the next (mathna) and
3rd (mathlath) classes. With al-Kindi and his successors, it was to get to the
end of the instrument and grow to be the string called hadd (‘high’) or the second
zir. (In accordance to oral tradition, to obtain an octave on the prolonged-necked lute
baglama, a low string must be placed in the middle. This is done when the neck
has number of frets.) As the ancient ‘ud did not have a two-octave compass, the
physical appearance of the fifth string corresponded to the calls for of a new program.
The 4-system ‘ud had no need to operate proper through the octave. Its repertory
was carried out on a tetrachord or pentachord, transposable an octave larger.
With the five-system design, the heptatonic method imposed complete sequence of
octaves. The new lute was named ‘ud kamil (‘perfect ‘ud’).
The 5-system ‘ud is the most widespread and most well-liked model amongst
performers. It has also been referred to as the ‘ud misri (Egyptian) simply because of the finely
created devices made by the lute makers of Egypt, who export them
as considerably as Zanzibar. The people of North Africa have added the dialectal identify of
m’sharqi or mashriqi (‘of the east’). The technique of tuning it, very versatile in
the nineteenth century, is now getting to be stabilized. These modifications are because of partly
to the crack-up of the Ottoman Empire, which has triggered a rupture amongst
Turkish and Arab cultures, and partly to the proliferation of instructing techniques
endeavouring to impose a one kind of tuning, managing from reduced to large: yaka =
G ‘ushayran = A duka = d nawa = g kardan = c’. However, there are variants
reintroducing tuning by 4ths. Therefore what is described as ‘Aleppo tuning’ consists
of: qarar busalik = E ‘ushayran A duka =d nawa = g kardan = c’. This latter
construction is utilized in Turkey and Iraq. To response the sensible requirements of
current-day notation, a treble clef followed by the determine 8 is used. This
process has been considerably criticized by individuals in favour of using the bass clef. The
tuning of the Turkish lute faithfully reflects the Arab type but in reverse, studying in
descending purchase: gerdaniye = g’ neva = d’ dugah = a asiran = e kaba dugah =
d (this previous, far more mobile pitch might equally settle upon G. This out-of-date tuning
signifies the ‘old school’ (eski akort), and has now been replaced by an
ascending tuning – the ‘new school’ (yeni akort): A-B-e-a-d’-g’. Though it is now
regarded as incorrect in the Syro-Egyptian region, and representative of the outdated
Ottoman faculty, a tuning approach in ascending get survives in Iraq. It is made up
of: yaka = d ‘ushayran = e duka = a nawa = d’ kurdan = g’. The compass of the
bichordal five-system ‘ud is just more than two octaves in Turkey, it is 3 octaves
with the addition of a minimal course. Arabian devices can obtain this by the
addition of a sixth system.
(iv) Six-system ‘ud: Two sorts of 6-system ‘ud exist: a single has 6 pairs of strings,
the other five pairs with an further low string. The 1st was identified by Jules
Rouanet in North Africa toward the stop of the previous century tuned inclusively it
has considering that disappeared besides in Libya,
the place it is still created but with different tuning. A comparable instrument, identified in Syria,
is tuned C- E-A-d-g-c’. The instrument with five double strings and a one low
a single, nevertheless, is getting to be more and more typical from Istanbul to Baghdad. It has
turn out to be frequent to spot the extra string following the optimum (or chanterelle).
Its pitch is at the choice of the player no rule is laid down. The presence of the
added string endows the instrument with a broader range and elevated ease of
enjoying, permitting the performer to operate effortlessly through a few octaves. The
sixth training course is also coming to be used as an intermittent drone, a new
(v) Seven-system ‘ud: 7-course versions, dependent on a sophisticated method of
tuning, ended up discovered in Egypt and Lebanon in the nineteenth century but have not been
observed since 1900. There is 1 exception: the Tunisian, Fawzl Sayib, is a residing
master of the 7-program instrument in the 6 pairs and one lower arrangement.
A characteristic of this ‘ud was that it reversed the arrangement of strings, inserting first
the higher and then the low strings on the neck from remaining to appropriate. In accordance to
Mikha’il Mushaqa (1800-88), only 4 of the 7 classes were performed, the
most affordable course (jaharka) and the two optimum (busalik and nihuft) being unused in
The University of Oud Online, is a system built to teach the Oud by means of Skype by the
migrant Oud learn Ramy Adly, an Egyptian popular Oud Player, Ramy Adly is a
younger master of the oud, the versatile lute-like instrument that formed Arab
classical audio. Grounded in the principal Arab classical types many thanks to rigorous
education in his native Egypt, Adly has branched out frequently, incorporating jazz
idioms and embracing conversations with other musicians all around the globe.
Adly has performed all around the Middle East, Europe, and North The us. He has
composed audio for theater and film, and collected a big number of students
all around the entire world, through an revolutionary on the web curriculum he produced, known as The
Faculty of Oud Online. His sensitive, strong actively playing has been read from the
Library at Alexandria to American cathedrals and faculties.
Now primarily based in Washington, DC, Adly continues to broaden the prospects of his
instrument. “I want to bring the oud to the exact same degree as the guitar culturally, the
instrument which is just about everywhere and can do every little thing,” he exclaims.
For Adly, the oud has always been like a member of the family. Virtually absolutely everyone
in his household played the oud when he was expanding up in Cairo, including uncles,
siblings, and his beloved grandfather, who gave him his very first introduction to the
complicated, evocative instrument. “I grew up listening to the oud,” he recalls.
Listening is a single factor, and mastering the instrument another. Adly plunged into
his examine of this age-old instrument at the Arab Oud Property, with Iraqi oud
virtuoso Naseer Shamma. Adly identified himself training for a dozen hours a working day,
and loving it. “It was a great deal like the system Paganini recognized for his learners,”
Adly describes. “You have to go via the hearth to be qualified as a performer and
composer. I graduated as the two composer and soloist.”