Herskind Putnam posted an update 5 months, 3 weeks ago
In accordance to El-Farabie, the Oud dates again to the times of Lamech a sixthgeneration
descendant of Adam. Lamech was known as the “Father of the Oud
players”. The initial visual appeal of the Oud was 3000 BC. The desecrated
skeleton recommended the type of the Oud. Oud is recognized as the very first stringed
instrument in heritage.
The oldest pictorial report of the Oud dates again to the Uruk time period in Southern
Mesopotamia (Iraq), over 5000 many years back on a cylinder seal obtained by Dr.
Dominique Collon and the seal is at present housed at the British Museum..
As the Oud becomes the quintessence of before chordophones, it also
constitutes their purposeful synthesis. In the 9th century, Miwardi, the jurist of
Baghdad, extolled its use in managing sickness, this sort of as King David did through his
daily life with his Oud. The Oud was in the fingers of Egyptians and Iraqis when the
Israelites arrived out of Egypt. They took the Oud with them to the Holy Land. The
Oud nevertheless maintains its Egyptian and Iraqi attributes and musical stylings. The Oud
was performed in sacred areas this kind of as the temples of Egypt.
In the first generations of Arabian civilization, the oud had 4 programs (1
string for each system – double-strings came later on) only, tuned in successive
fourths. These ended up called (for the least expensive in pitch) the Bamm, then came
(larger to greatest in pitch) the Mathnā, the Mathlath and the Zīr. A fifth
string (highest in pitch, most affordable in its positioning in relation to other strings),
known as ḥād ("sharp"), was sometimes added for theoretical purposes,
usually to enhance the double octave.
The neck, joined to the entire body, is explained as ‘unq (‘neck’) in classical writings
and the raqba (‘neck’) or zand (‘wrist’) right now. It extends the higher portion of the
instrument by some twenty cm and is inserted into the soundbox up to the
soundhole. This length, which has been considerably talked about, is critical in the
instrument’s construction, deciding the number and location of the intervals
and thus influencing the modes. In early 19th-century Egypt, Villoteau gave the
measurement as 22.4 cm a century afterwards, also in Egypt, Kamil al-Khula’i gave it
as 19.five cm. In contemporary Egypt, the duration of the neck could range between 18
and 20.5 can. It is standardized as 20 cm in Syria, but a size of 24.five cm may possibly
be identified on Moroccan types, he ‘ud ‘arbi (Arab ‘ud). If the ‘ud ‘arbi is the
descendant of an archaic model of Andalusian provenance, the upper portion of the
instrument could have grow to be shorter. The neck hardly ever has
4. Versions of the ‘ud
(i) Two-string ‘ud:The thesis of its existence has been upheld by musicologists
from Europe and Iran it envisages the archaic ‘ud as a counterpart of the tanbur,
getting two strings like that instrument. The argument rests on the names of the
strings, two of which are Iranian phrases (bamm and zir) and two other individuals of Arab
origin (mathna and mathlath). There is no circumstantial documentary proof
to help this hypothesis.
(ii) 4-course ‘ud: The Arabian ‘ud qadim (ancient lute), in certain, invited
cosmological speculation, linking the strings with the humours, the temperature,
the components, the seasons, the cardinal details, the zodiac and the stars. The
strings might be tuned bass to treble or treble to bass. Bass to treble tuning is
represented by al-Kindi (9th century), who advocated tuning the cheapest training course
(bamm or 1st string) to the most affordable singable pitch. Positioning the ring finger on a
mathematically identified length of this string, 1 moves on to deduce the
pitch of the third open up course (mathna), then that of the second (mathlath) and
last but not least the fourth (zir). (This method is also applied to the five-course ‘ud and is
nevertheless used as a tuning strategy, following the sequence 1-4-two-three-five or one-4-2-five-3.)
Adherents of the opposite school (Ikhwan al- Safa’) tune from treble to bass. The
intention, inherited in component by the Turkish ‘ud, involves pulling difficult on the zir (higher)
string, so that as it ways breaking-position it presents a very clear seem. One particular then
moves on to decide the pitch of the second course (mathna), the 3rd
(mathlath) and last but not least the fourth (bamm). These two colleges did not remain
fully separate. But whichever procedure is used, each finish up with tuning by
successive 4ths, each and every training course becoming tuned a 4th over the reduce program
previous it. Musicologists, Jap as well as Western, who try out to interpret the
pitch of these notes in European phrases finish up with various outcomes.
Though the four-program ‘ud survives in Morocco, as the ‘ud ‘arbi, the tuning
does not conform to the pitches inferred from classical treatises: a conflict
in between oral and written traditions. The Moroccan method looks to be the
merchandise of a preceding technique, the ‘ud
ramal, which also comprised a sequence of 4ths: ramal (?e), hsin, (?a), maya (?
d’), raghul (?g’). This ‘ud, like its Tunisian counterpart, may possibly be variously tuned: a
attribute of these tunings is that they juxtapose the standard 4ths with the octave
and occasionally the fifth and 6th (D-d- G-c). The strings of the ‘ud ‘arbi are named
dhil, ramal, maya, hsin this terminology by no indicates refers to a set pitch
regular such as tutorial and standardized tuition techniques would desire for.
At the time of al-Kindi, two of the programs were made of gut and two of silk. In the
tenth century silk grew to become predominant and some texts give the composition of
the twisted threads: bamm = 64 threads, mathlath = 48, mathna = 36, zir = 27.
The figures for the decrease classes of the ‘ud correspond with individuals of two higher
strings of the Chinese qin, a truth that has led to speculation about the
partnership between Arab and Chinese civilizations by way of the Silk Route.
An additional characteristic of the four-course ‘ud is that it is bichordal, obtaining double
courses. thirteenth-century iconography shows that it was already typical to pair the
strings at that time, probably to boost sonority but also to let the
advancement of a more virtuoso kind of performance.
(iii) 5-training course ‘ud: The addition in Andalusia of a fifth training course has been
attributed to Ziryab (eighth-9th century), though in theoretical writings it appeared
in Iraq with al-Kindi. (The addition of this added program has a parallel in China.)
With Ziryab the fifth course, known as awsat (‘intermediary’), a time period perpetuated
in the ‘ud of San’a’ called qanbus, is put amongst the second (mathna) and
third (mathlath) classes. With al-Kindi and his successors, it was to get to the
conclude of the instrument and become the string known as hadd (‘high’) or the next
zir. (According to oral custom, to get an octave on the long-necked lute
baglama, a low string need to be placed in the middle. This is accomplished when the neck
has couple of frets.) As the historical ‘ud did not have a two-octave compass, the
physical appearance of the fifth string corresponded to the calls for of a new system.
The four-system ‘ud had no need to have to run right by way of the octave. Its repertory
was carried out on a tetrachord or pentachord, transposable an octave greater.
With the five-program model, the heptatonic method imposed comprehensive sequence of
octaves. The new lute was named ‘ud kamil (‘perfect ‘ud’).
The five-training course ‘ud is the most typical and most well-known product among
performers. It has also been referred to as the ‘ud misri (Egyptian) because of the finely
constructed devices made by the lute makers of Egypt, who export them
as considerably as Zanzibar. The men and women of North Africa have added the dialectal identify of
m’sharqi or mashriqi (‘of the east’). The approach of tuning it, incredibly adaptable in
the nineteenth century, is now turning out to be stabilized. These modifications are owing partly
to the break-up of the Ottoman Empire, which has caused a rupture between
Turkish and Arab cultures, and partly to the proliferation of instructing methods
endeavouring to impose a single type of tuning, operating from lower to high: yaka =
G ‘ushayran = A duka = d nawa = g kardan = c’. However, there are variants
reintroducing tuning by 4ths. Therefore what is explained as ‘Aleppo tuning’ is composed
of: qarar busalik = E ‘ushayran A duka =d nawa = g kardan = c’. This latter
composition is employed in Turkey and Iraq. To reply the practical requirements of
current-day notation, a treble clef adopted by the figure eight is utilized. This
process has been significantly criticized by these in favour of employing the bass clef. The
tuning of the Turkish lute faithfully demonstrates the Arab sort but in reverse, reading through in
descending get: gerdaniye = g’ neva = d’ dugah = a asiran = e kaba dugah =
d (this final, much more mobile pitch may similarly settle on G. This outdated tuning
represents the ‘old school’ (eski akort), and has now been replaced by an
ascending tuning – the ‘new school’ (yeni akort): A-B-e-a-d’-g’. Even though it is now
deemed incorrect in the Syro-Egyptian location, and consultant of the old
Ottoman school, a tuning strategy in ascending buy survives in Iraq. It is composed
of: yaka = d ‘ushayran = e duka = a nawa = d’ kurdan = g’. The compass of the
bichordal five-program ‘ud is just more than two octaves in Turkey, it is a few octaves
with the addition of a low system. Arabian devices can attain this by the
addition of a sixth system.
(iv) 6-program ‘ud: Two varieties of 6-training course ‘ud exist: one has 6 pairs of strings,
the other 5 pairs with an further lower string. The very first was discovered by Jules
Rouanet in North Africa in the direction of the finish of the very last century tuned inclusively it
has because disappeared besides in Libya,
where it is still made but with distinct tuning. A related instrument, found in Syria,
is tuned C- E-A-d-g-c’. The instrument with 5 double strings and a one reduced
1, even so, is turning into ever more typical from Istanbul to Baghdad. It has
grow to be common to spot the further string after the greatest (or chanterelle).
Its pitch is at the option of the player no rule is laid down. The existence of the
extra string endows the instrument with a wider selection and enhanced ease of
playing, allowing the performer to run very easily via three octaves. The
sixth training course is also coming to be used as an intermittent drone, a new
(v) Seven-course ‘ud: Seven-system versions, primarily based on a complex method of
tuning, were identified in Egypt and Lebanon in the nineteenth century but have not been
observed given that 1900. There is one exception: the Tunisian, Fawzl Sayib, is a residing
grasp of the seven-training course instrument in the six pairs and a single reduced arrangement.
A attribute of this ‘ud was that it reversed the arrangement of strings, inserting first
the high and then the minimal strings on the neck from remaining to appropriate. According to
Mikha’il Mushaqa (1800-88), only 4 of the seven courses have been performed, the
cheapest program (jaharka) and the two greatest (busalik and nihuft) currently being unused in
The University of Oud On the web, is a system constructed to instruct the Oud by means of Skype by the
migrant Oud master Ramy Adly, an Egyptian well-known Oud Participant, Ramy Adly is a
youthful grasp of the oud, the versatile lute-like instrument that shaped Arab
classical music. Grounded in the major Arab classical types thanks to rigorous
instruction in his native Egypt, Adly has branched out continuously, incorporating jazz
idioms and embracing conversations with other musicians close to the planet.
Adly has done all around the Middle East, Europe, and North The usa. He has
composed songs for theater and movie, and gathered a big quantity of learners
all around the world, through an progressive on the internet curriculum he developed, known as The
College of Oud On the internet. His sensitive, robust playing has been read from the
Library at Alexandria to American cathedrals and schools.
Now dependent in Washington, DC, Adly proceeds to grow the opportunities of his
instrument. “I want to provide the oud to the very same amount as the guitar culturally, the
instrument which is everywhere and can do everything,” he exclaims.
For Adly, the oud has usually been like a member of the household. Nearly everybody
in his loved ones performed the oud when he was growing up in Cairo, like uncles,
siblings, and his beloved grandfather, who gave him his very first introduction to the
intricate, evocative instrument. “I grew up listening to the oud,” he recalls.
Listening is one factor, and mastering the instrument one more. Adly plunged into
his examine of this age-previous instrument at the Arab Oud Home, with Iraqi oud
virtuoso Naseer Shamma. Adly identified himself working towards for a dozen several hours a working day,
and loving it. “It was a lot like the technique Paganini recognized for his students,”
Adly points out. “You have to go via the fire to be skilled as a performer and
composer. I graduated as the two composer and soloist.”